雅思真題閱讀考試真題回顧分析(最新版)2017-10-19 17:44:00 來源: 瀏覽:0次
題目：廣告與兒童飲食健康Food advertising on children
題型：小標題7 + 判斷6
11 NOT GIVEN
13 NOT GIVEN
This review was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency to examine the current research evidence on the extent and nature of food promotion children and the effect, if any, that this promotion has on their food knowledge, preferences and behaviour.
A. Children’s food promotion is dominated by television advertising, and the great majority of this promotes the so-called ‘Big Four’of pre-sugared breakfast cereals, soft-drinks, confectionary and savoury snacks. In the last ten years advertising for fast food outlets has rapidly increased. There is some evidence that the dominance of television has reinforces a need for multi-faceted communications combining television with merchandising, ‘tie-ins’and point of sale activity. The advertised diet contrasts sharply with that recommended by public health advisors, and themes of fun and fantasy or taste, rather than health and nutrition, are used to promote it to children. Meanwhile, the recommended diet gets little promotional support.
B. There is plenty of evidence that children notice and enjoy food promotion. However, establishing whether this actually influences them is a complex problem. The review tackled it by looking at studies that had examined possible effects on what children know about food, their food preferences, their actual food behaviour(both buying and eating),and their health outcomes(eg.obesity or cholesterol levels). The majority of studies examined food advertising , but a few examined other forms of food promotion. In terms of nutritional knowledge, food advertising seems to have little influence on children’s general perceptions of what constitutes a healthy diet, but, in certain contexts, it does have an effect on more specific types of nutritional knowledge. For example, seeing soft drink and cereal adverts reduced primary aged children’s ability to determine correctly whether or not certain products contained real fruit.
C. The review also found evidence that food promotion influences children’s food preferences and their purchase behaviour. A study of primary school children, for instance, found that exposure to advertising influenced which foods they claimed to like; and another showed that labeling and signage on a vending machine had an effect on what was bought by secondary school pupils. A number of studies have also shown that food advertising can influence what children eat. One, for example, showed that advertising influenced a primary class’s choice of daily snack at playtime.
D. Furthermore, two factors suggest that these findings actually downplay the effect that food promotion has on children. First, the literature focuses principally on television; the cumulative effect of this significantly greater. Second, the studies have looked at direct effects on individual children, and understate indirect influences. For example, promotion for fast food outlets may not only influence the child, but also encourage parents to take them for meals and reinforce the idea that this is a normal and desirable behaviour.
E. This does not amount to proof of an effect, but in our view does provide sufficient evidence to conclude that an effect exists. The debate should now shift to what action is needed, and specifically to how the power of commercial marketing can be used to bring about improvements in young people’s eating.
A. An inspiration of using high-speed photography
B. The action is too slow to be visible to human eyes
C. Films should be shot at the place where the animal will pass
D. The filming speed should be adjusted to make it more interesting
E. The action would be too fast to be perceived without using camera
F. The action would be too slow to be captured
Question 31-36 summary
31. time interval
32. continuous action
34. greater length
36. slowed down proportionately
Question 37-40 Matching
Which paragraph contains the following information?
37. contrasting reasons about why human cannot see some of the action……A
38. a description about the problems of high-speed photography…..D
39. an example of capture by using cameras which cannot be moved……F
40. a description about watching continuously without excitement….E